Transportation, marketing, operations, closeness to the raw materials and consumption locations have played an important role in the allocation of industrial enterprises in Turkey.
For example, in the establishment and development of industrial facilities in Istanbul and Izmir: land and sea transportation networks, access to raw materials and easy and low cost transportation of the products in every season and the market is an important factor.
Industry developed mostly in Marmara Region, the most important factor for that is transportation. Other conditions have also accelerated industrialization. Istanbul – Adapazarı, Izmir, Mersin, Adana, Bursa, Ereğli, Karabük, Iskenderun, Eskişehir, Ankara and Gaziantep are the most developed provinces of the industry. As the development of industrial activities provided job opportunities, the population in that area also increased due to migration.
Closeness to raw material resources has also been an important factor in the development of the industry, for example, the development of agriculture based industry in Cukurova. Bakery products in Konya, like tea mills in Rize.
Especially in Eastern Anatolia and Eastern Black Sea, the most important factor in the development of the industry is the difficulty in reaching those areas. The presence of mineral resources has also affected industrial plants, for example, coal in Zonguldak, copper in Murgul, iron mines in Sivas (Divriği).
Industrial and trade chambers have been established in order to develop industry and trade in Turkey to decrease the imbalance in the distribution industry.
Most of the industrial areas in the country were established in Marmara Region, Istanbul especially, but alsoIzmit, Bursa and Adapazarı are important industrial cities.
Çerkezköy, one of the biggest organized industrial regions in the Trakya region draws a lot of attention lately. Textile, chemicals and metal industry is wide spread in this area and the industry is gradually developing. In addition, various industrial areas in the vicinity of Alpullu, Edirne, Çorlu and Tekirdağ are under development.
After the Marmara Region, the second largest industry in located in the Aegean Region, especially around Izmir. Weaving and food industry, machinery, spare parts, petroleum products and many other sectors have focused on İzmir. With the oil refinery of Aliağa and some other developed areas like Ayvalık and Edremit, sugar industry in Afyon, Kütahya and Uşak, ceramic factories in Kütahya, cotton weaving industry in Aydın, but also Nazilli and Denizli, configures an region of critical importance for the Turkish industry.
Another area where the industry is intensively localized is the Western Black Sea region. In this part the heavy industry has located, attracted by the concentration of mines in Zonguldak. Karabük and Eregli iron and steel factories are also important industrial areas in that particular region.
Çukurova is the fastest industrializing place of the Mediterranean Region. Apart from various industries in Adana, Mersin oil refinery (ATAŞ), Iskender unphosphate mines and iron and steel factories, Antalya ferro-chrome plant and Seydisehir aluminum plants are located in this region.
The industrial areas in the Central Anatolian Region were gathered around Eskişehir, Kayseri, Sivas, Konya, Kırıkkale and Ankara.
In recent years, along with GAP Project and especially in Southeast Anatolia, agriculture-based industries are developing.
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